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Landscapes and Geology, Jim Corbett National Park, Corbett Tiger Reserve

Landscapes and Geology Jim Corbett National Park

Mountains surrounding the area of Jim Corbett National Park offer a huge diversity of habitats due to variation in altitude, relief and temperature. As a result mountains plants and animals species have different and unique characteristics. They reveal the entirely different behavior as compare to others wildlife community's residents in different national park of the country.

Himalayas and Shiwaliks

Himalayan mountain system leaves direct impact on the characteristics of Jim Corbett National Park. As far as the geographical boundary is concerned Corbett's northern area are marked by the Lesser Himalayan chain which extends from Pakistan, through Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal, Uttaranchal, Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan, and to Arunachal. The lesser Himalayas are made up of crystalline rocks. These mountains are quite high with an average altitude of 1800 meter. The sal dominated area of Corbett has woody vegetation and rest area vegetation include different species of trees like Oak, Pine and rhododendron.
However, major portion of the park falls in the outer Himalayan or Shiwalik region towards the south. The upper tertiary rocks are exposed towards the Shiwalik range and hence Shiwaliks form the largest ridge across the park, running east to west from Dhangarhi to Kalagarh. These ridges are clothed by sal forests and other associates.

Dun Valley

Visitors staying at Dhikala forest lodge and if they move towards the Kanha ridge can enjoy the spectacular natural beauty of Patli Dun Valley. The elongated valley between the Himalayas and Shiwalik mountain ranges is called Duns. It is formed by the Ramganga River. The valley is covered with gravel and boulders formed by the erosion of Himalayas and Shiwalik uplands. Northern half of the Corbett is covered by one such Dun called Patli Dun which is best visible from the Dhikala zone and Kanda being situated at the high altitude of the park which reflects a splendid view of the valley.
Between the Himalayan and Shiwalik mountain ranges lie elongated valleys called duns. Unlike typical river valleys, duns are formed not due to erosion but have a structural origin. They are covered with boulders and gravel originating from the erosion of the Himalayas and the Shiwalik uplands. One such dun occurs in the northern half of Corbett. This is the Patli Dun and is most visible from Dhikala. Kanda, being higher in the Park, presents a panoramic view of this valley.


The southern boundary of Corbett flanks the ecologically important terai-bhabar area, a strip of land skirting the southern part of the Shiwaliks. It includes the bhabar region, a slim belt of sloping land located at the outer margin of Shiwaliks, and the terai swamplands that lie extra south of bhabar. The bhabar tract is porous due to the fact it consists typically of gravel and boulders. It is devoid of streams or springs and water table is fairly low. In distinction, the terai is swampy and humid, and involves many springs and gradual-flowing streams. Lots of the terai as soon as held dense vegetation and was once feared for malaria. It has been cleared for agriculture and is without doubt one of the most fertile grain production areas of India. Together, the Terai-bhabar is a exact ecological area, house to endangered flora and fauna such as the tiger, rhino, elephant, sloth undergo, and vital habitat for for over 500 hen species.
The Terai-bhabar is an individual environmental area, residence to rare wildlife such as the tiger, rhino, elephant, sloth bear, and crucial atmosphere for over 500 bird variety. The southern boundary of Corbett flanks the ecologically essential terai-bhabar area the terai swamplands that lie additional south of bhabar. The terai is swampy and muggy, and contains several springs and slow-flowing streams. The bhabar region is porous because it consists mainly of gravel and boulders. The band of ground shirking the southern constituent of the Shiwaliks. It consists of thebhabar section, a slight restraint of sloping land situated at the external edge of Shiwaliks.

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